Face Masks: The Harmful Effects - Studies and Articles
Studies and Reviews:
Adverse Effects of Prolonged Mask Use among Healthcare Professionals during COVID-19 - Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology - "Prolonged use of N95 and surgical masks by healthcare professionals during COVID-19 has caused adverse effects such as headaches, rash, acne, skin breakdown, and impaired cognition in the majority of those surveyed."
Need for assessing the inhalation of micro(nano)plastic debris shed from masks, respirators, and home-made face coverings during the COVID-19 pandemic - Environmental Pollution - "Respirable hazards such as micro(nano)plastics present in (face masks) may escalate from once an occupational hazard to a public health issue."
Cognitive and psychophysiological impact of surgical mask use during university lessons - Physiology and Behaviour - "The use of surgical mask during a 150 min university lesson produced an increased heart rate and a decrease in blood oxygen saturation, not significantly affecting the mental fatigue perception, reaction time and time, frequency and non linear hear rate variability domains of students."
Effects of surgical and FFP2/N95 face masks on cardiopulmonary exercise capacity - Clinical Research in Cardiology - "Medical face masks have a marked negative impact on cardiopulmonary capacity that significantly impairs strenuous physical and occupational activities. In addition, medical masks significantly impair the quality of life of their wearer."
“Exercise with facemask; Are we handling a devil's sword?” – A physiological hypothesis - Elsevier - "Exercising with facemasks might increase pathophysiological risks of underlying chronic disease, especially cardiovascular and metabolic risks."
Effect of a surgical mask on six minute walking distance - Revue des Maladies Repiratoire - "Wearing a surgical mask modifies significantly and clinically dyspnea without influencing walked distance."
The physiological impact of wearing an N95 mask during hemodialysis as a precaution against SARS in patients with end-stage renal disease - Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - "Wearing an N95 mask for 4 hours during HD significantly reduced PaO2 and increased respiratory adverse effects in ESRD patients."
Contamination by respiratory viruses on outer surface of medical masks used by hospital healthcare workers - BMC Infectious Diseases - "Respiratory pathogens on the outer surface of the used medical masks may result in self-contamination. The risk is higher with longer duration of mask use (> 6 h) and with higher rates of clinical contact."
Respiratory consequences of N95-type Mask usage in pregnant healthcare workers-a controlled clinical study - Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - "Breathing through N95 mask materials have been shown to impede gaseous exchange and impose an additional workload on the metabolic system of pregnant healthcare workers, and this needs to be taken into consideration in guidelines for respirator use."
Headaches Associated With Personal Protective Equipment – A Cross‐Sectional Study Among Frontline Healthcare Workers During COVID‐19 - Headache Journal of Head and Face Pain - "Most healthcare workers develop de novo PPE‐associated headaches or exacerbation of their pre‐existing headache disorders."
Effects of wearing N95 and surgical facemasks on heart rate, thermal stress and subjective sensations - International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health - "Therefore, it can be concluded that N95 and surgical facemasks can induce significantly different temperatures and humidity in the microclimates of facemasks, which have profound influences on heart rate and thermal stress and subjective perception of discomfort. (As the purpose of wearing the facemasks is to protect the wearers by filtering out viruses and bacteria, it is obviously questionable whether the surgical masks, which induce less heat stress and discomfort, can provide enough protection for healthcare workers.)"
Masks Are Neither Effective Nor Safe: A Summary Of The Science - Primary Doctor Medical Journal
Masks, False Safety and Real Dangers, Part 1: Friable Mask Particulate and Lung Vulnerability. - Primary Doctor Medical Journal
Masks, False Safety and Real Dangers, Part 2: Microbial Challenges from Masks. - Primary Doctor Medical Journal
Masks, False Safety and Real Dangers, Part 3: Hypoxia, Hypercapnia and Physiological Effects. - Primary Doctor Medical Journal
Masks, False Safety and Real Dangers, Part 4: Proposed Mechanisms By Which Masks Increase Risk of Covid-19. - Primary Doctor Medical Journal
Open Letter to UK Government ministers regarding the current face covering mandates - UK Medical Freedom Alliance
Mandatory masks in school are a ‘major threat’ to children’s development, doctors warn - "We see in our practices an increasing number of children and young people with complaints due to the rules of conduct that have been imposed on them. We diagnose anxiety and sleep problems, behavioral disorders and fear of contamination. We are seeing an increase in domestic violence, isolation and deprivation. Many lack physical and emotional contact; attachment problems and addiction are obvious. ‘ ‘The mandatory mouth mask in schools is a major threat to their development. It ignores the essential needs of the growing child. The well-being of children and young people is highly dependent on the emotional connection with others."
Psychosocial, biological, and immunological risks for children and pupils make long-term wearing of mouth masks difficult to maintain - Letter to the BMJ - Dr. Carla Peeters, Prof. Dr. Wim Vanden Berghe, Prof. Dr. Mattias Desmet.
A German children's charity got laboratory tests done on one of the masks typically sold in shops, after it had been worn by a child in school for 8 (!) hours: Result: 82 bacterial colonies & 4 mould (fungoid) colonies.
Protective masks reduce resilience - (In German) - "Breathing is impaired in a measurable way, (by masks), as a study by the Leipzig University Hospital has shown."
Harmful Effects of Wearing a Mask - Dr John Ure
Proof That Face Masks Do More Harm Than Good - Dr Vernon Coleman ebook.
Covid-19: important potential side effects of wearing face masks that we should bear in mind - Letter to the BMJ - Antonio I Lazzarino, Medical Doctor and Epidemiologist, University College London, UCL Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care